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Archaeologists found those objects during the excavations of the large tumulus tombs of the Kushite chiefs, who were buried on beds surrounded by hundreds of their sacrificed retainers. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Toward the end of Harkhuf’s career, the Nubian chiefs united, imperiling the Aswān expeditions. Nubia, ancient region in northeastern Africa, extending approximately from the Nile River valley (near the first cataract in Upper Egypt) eastward to the shores of the Red Sea, southward to about Khartoum (in what is now Sudan), and westward to the Libyan Desert.

You can change your choices at any time by visiting Your Privacy Controls. Yet new dams are planned for the region. Lower Nubia was the northern part of the region, located between the second and the first cataract of Aswān; this was called Wawat.

Pharoah Snefru (c. 2575 bce) conducted a raid into Nubia and established an Egyptian outpost at Buhen.

The kingdom of Kush eventually broke through the frontier as Egyptian control waned in the later 13th dynasty. Though many Nubians supported the building of the high dam, on the grounds that it would help Egypt, they have received little in return for their sacrifice. Ardent worshipers of Amon, the Kushites considered the Libyanized Lower Egyptians cultural degenerates, but they felt a strong affinity for the Thebans, who were also worshipers of Amon. The earliest inhabitants of what is now Sudan can be traced to African peoples who lived in the vicinity of Khartoum in Mesolithic times (Middle Stone Age; 30,000–20,000. This article was most recently revised and updated by, Nubia - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Nubia - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Semna was also where the Egyptians recorded the Nile inundation levels during the Middle Kingdom. A contemporaneous but distinct culture from the C-Group was the Pan Grave culture, so called because of their shallow graves. Whether Nubian or Arabic in identity, the people of North Sudan are mostly indistinguishable in physical characteristics. The capital of the Nobatae appears then to have been moved to Pachoras (Faras) until they were amalgamated later in the 6th century with Maqurrah (Makurra) into the single kingdom of Dunqulah. Because of continued intrigues, an Egyptian expedition sacked the capital of Kush, Napata, about 592.

Toward the end of Harkhuf’s career, the Nubian chiefs united, imperiling the Aswān expeditions. Get kids back-to-school ready with Expedition: Learn! Are they Blacks? All rights reserved.

During the First Intermediate Period many Nubians served as mercenaries in Egypt. But the younger generation is trying to reinvigorate the culture. Sūbah, the ʿAlwah capital, survived to the 16th century and then gave way to the Muslim Funj dynasty of Sennar. The Kushite ruler Shabaka succeeded Piankhi and conquered all of Egypt about 715 bce, ending the 22nd, 23rd, and 24th dynasties. No archaeological remains of the native Lower Nubians of the next 500 years have been discovered. Meanwhile, in 23 bce, a Roman army under Gaius Petronius destroyed Napata. In 701 bce Shabaka backed the Hebrew king Hezekiah’s revolt against Assyria. With the stroke of his pen, Egypt’s president designated a stretch of mostly uninhabited land in southern Egypt as a restricted military zone.

After Herihor took control in Upper Egypt, Nubia broke away from Egypt despite a long and costly war waged by the Thebans. A new population (called C-Group by archaeologists) inhabited Wawat, while a group known in the present day as the Karmah culture occupied Kush. Instead, they have been marginalised politically and economically, and feel discriminated against on account of their darker skin.

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